System Reliability Toolkit

System Reliability Toolkit

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The System Reliability Toolkit provides technical guidance in all aspects of system reliability, addressing both software reliability and human factors to better reflect the changing requirements of defense community.

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Product Description

The RIAC, in a cooperative agreement with the DTIC IAC, the Data and Analysis Center for Software (DACS), has developed the next publication in the successful Reliability “Toolkit” series long-associated with the Reliability Analysis Center. Throughout the Reliability Toolkit series, the focus has been predominantly on hardware, with little attention given to software, and no attention given to human factors. DoD systems and commercial products, however, have become increasingly software-intensive, such that software has become virtually indistinguishable from hardware in addressing mission criticality and ensuring mission success. Additionally, interaction between humans and machines requires much more attention to gain a better understanding of the impact of human factors on overall system reliability. The System Reliability Toolkit provides technical guidance to the user in all aspects of system reliability. As a result, the user can better understand and implement those techniques necessary to ensure that system and product designs exhibit successful levels of hardware, software and human reliability, and that inherent risks associated with deficiencies in system reliability can be minimized.

Additional information

ISBN:

978-1-933904-01-6

Table of Contents

Section 1.0 The Need for Reliability 1
  1.1 THE NEED FOR SYSTEM RELIABILITY 3
  1.2 CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONS 5
  1.3 MARKET COMPETITION 8
  1.4 AVAILABILITY AND OPERATIONAL READINESS 13
  1.5 LIFE CYCLE COSTS AND LCCA 19
  1.6 LIABILITY 32
  1.7 MILITARY NEEDS 36
  1.8 WARRANTIES 42
Section 2.0 Systems Engineering and Reliability 53
  2.1 THE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PROCESS 55
    2.1.1 Identification of System Needs and Feasibility Analysis 63
    2.1.2 System Operational Requirements 64
    2.1.3 Functional Analysis and Allocation 66
  2.2 CONCEPTS RELATED TO SYSTEM R&M 72
    2.2.1 Logistics 74
    2.2.2 Supportability 80
  2.3 RELIABILITY OVER THE SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE 81
  2.4 OVERVIEW OF SOFTWARE RELIABILITY 87
    2.4.1 Software vs Hardware Reliability 91
  2.5 HUMAN ENGINEERING 96
    2.5.1 Elements of a Human Engineering Program 99
    2.5.2 Human Reliability Considerations for Systems 102
Section 3.0 Reliability and Maintainability Basics 105
  3.1 SYSTEM TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE MEASURES 107
  3.2 RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY DEFINITIONS 111
  3.3 THE BATHTUB CURVE 113
  3.4 RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY FIGURES-OF-MERIT 114
    3.4.1 Operational Parameter Translation 121
  3.5 SOFTWARE QUALITY METRICS 124
  3.6 HUMAN-MACHINE PERFORMANCE METRICS 127
    3.6.1 Human-Machine Reliability, Maintainability and Availability Metrics 128
  3.7 RELEVANT STATISTICAL CONCEPTS 130
    3.7.1 Probability Distributions 134
      3.7.1.1 Binomial Distribution 139
      3.7.1.2 Poisson Distribution 141
      3.7.1.3 Normal Distribution 143
      3.7.1.4 Exponential Distribution 145
      3.7.1.5 Gamma Distribution 147
      3.7.1.6 Weibull Distribution 150
    3.7.2 Statistical Hypothesis Testing 154
      3.7.2.1 Hypothesis Testing for Reliability Acceptance 162
      3.7.2.2 Hypothesis Testing for Reliability Growth 165
      3.7.2.3 Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test 167
      3.7.2.4 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit Test 170
    3.7.3 Parameter Estimation 174
    3.7.4 Confidence Bounds 179
Section 4.0 R&M Requirements and Programs 185
CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS
  4.1 PERFORMANCE-BASED REQUIREMENTS 187
  4.2 SPECIFICATION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR SYSTEM DESIGN 191
    4.2.1 Example R&M Requirements for a Supplier Specification or SOW 193
  4.3 QUANTITATIVE RELIABILITY REQUIREMENTS 199
  4.4 QUANTITATIVE MAINTAINABILITY REQUIREMENTS 203
  4.5 QUANTITATIVE TESTABILITY/DIAGNOSTIC REQUIREMENTS 204
  4.6 R&M INFORMATION FOR PROPOSALS 207
    4.6.1 Source Selection and R&M Evaluation Criteria 208
PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS
  4.7 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL 212
  4.8 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PHASE TERMINOLOGY 214
  4.9 RELIABILITY PROGRAM ELEMENTS 215
  4.10 R&M ACTIVITY PRIORITIES 220
    4.10.1 Human Engineering Relationship to Reliability 221
  4.11 NONDEVELOPMENTAL ITEM (NDI) CONSIDERATIONS 223
    4.11.1 Issues in COTS Hardware/Software Reliability 227
Section 5.0 Design 233
  5.1 PART RELIABILITY CONSIDERATIONS
    5.1.1 Parts Selection, Application and Control 235
      5.1.1.1 Special Part Considerations 242
    5.1.2 Part Stress Derating 248
    5.1.3 Part Failure Modes/Mechanisms 250
  5.2 ASSEMBLY RELIABILITY CONSIDERATIONS
    5.2.1 Thermal Management 255
    5.2.2 Interconnection Techniques 257
    5.2.3 Power Supply Design Checklist 261
    5.2.4 Testability Criteria (Assembly Level) 263
  5.3 SYSTEM/EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY CONSIDERATIONS
    5.3.1 The System Design Process 266
    5.3.2 Benchmarking 269
    5.3.3 System/Equipment Reviews 272
      5.3.3.1 Human Engineering Design Reviews 276
    5.3.4 Design for Reliability 278
    5.3.5 System Fault Tolerance Techniques 280
      5.3.5.1 Software Fault Tolerance Techniques 283
    5.3.6 Environmental Characterization 288
    5.3.7 Critical Item Reliability 292
    5.3.8 Testability and Diagnostics 293
      5.3.8.1 Testability Criteria (System Level) 297
    5.3.9 System Electromagnetic Guidelines 299
    5.3.10 Unique Considerations for Dormancy 301
    5.3.11 Mechanical Systems 304
    5.3.12 Software Reliability Design & Development 310
      5.3.12.1 Waterfall Model 317
      5.3.12.2 Prototyping and Rapid Prototyping Models 319
      5.3.12.3 Spiral and WIN-WIN Models 322
      5.3.12.4 Software Reuse 325
      5.3.12.5 Software Inspection 329
      5.3.12.6 Concurrent Hardware/Software Development 333
    5.3.13 Design for Human Factors 336
      5.3.13.1 Anthropometric Factors 338
      5.3.13.2 Sensory Factors 340
      5.3.13.3 Strength and Endurance Factors 342
      5.3.13.4 Speed and Accuracy Factors 344
      5.3.13.5 Body Movement Factors 345
      5.3.13.6 Physiological Factors 346
      5.3.13.7 Human Engineering Design Tools & Methods 353
      5.3.13.8 Designing for Human Reliability 356
      5.3.13.9 Reliable Human Performance 363
      5.3.13.10 Factors Affecting Human Performance 365
      5.3.13.11 Time and Human Performance Factors 368
    5.3.14 Design for Maintainability 372
      5.3.14.1 System Maintainability Concepts 374
      5.3.14.2 System Maintainability Considerations 376
      5.3.14.3 System Interfaces and Connections 382
Section 6.0 Analysis 385
  6.1 TYPES OF RELIABILITY ANALYSES 387
  6.2 RELIABILITY MODELING
    6.2.1 Hardware Reliability Modeling 389
    6.2.2 Software Reliability Modeling 396
      6.2.2.1 Time Domain Models 400
      6.2.2.2 Fault Seeding Model 407
      6.2.2.3 Input Domain Models 409
    6.2.3 Human Reliability Modeling 411
  6.3 ALLOCATION OF RELIABILITY REQUIREMENTS 414
    6.3.1 Allocation of Hardware Reliability Requirements 415
    6.3.2 Allocation of Software Reliability Requirements 421
      6.3.2.1 Allocation by Sequential Execution 424
      6.3.2.2 Allocation by Concurrent Execution 425
      6.3.2.3 Allocation by Operational Profile 426
      6.3.2.4 Allocation by Complexity Factors 429
      6.3.2.5 Allocation by Operational Criticality 431
    6.3.3 Allocation of Human Reliability Requirements 433
  6.4 RELIABILITY PREDICTION
    6.4.1 Hardware Reliability Prediction 437
      6.4.1.1 Reliability Physics 441
      6.4.1.2 Reliability of Surface Mount Technology (SMT) 444
      6.4.1.3 Parts Count Reliability Prediction 449
      6.4.1.4 Reliability Adjustment Factors 461
      6.4.1.5 Reliability Prediction of Dormant Items 463
      6.4.1.6 Reliability Prediction of Mechanical Components 464
      6.4.1.7 Reliability Prediction Checklist 473
    6.4.2 Software Reliability Prediction/Estimation Overview 474
      6.4.2.1 Software Reliability Prediction 480
      6.4.2.2 Software Fault Estimation Using Tagging 482
      6.4.2.3 Prequential Likelihood Ratio 484
      6.4.2.4 Assessing Software Reliability Model Performance 486
    6.4.3 Predicting Human Reliability 491
  6.5 DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
    6.5.1 Overview of Data Collection and Analysis 498
    6.5.2 Types and Sources of Data 513
    6.5.3 Use of Existing Reliability Data 516
    6.5.4 Human Reliability Data Sources 517
    6.5.5 Data Analysis Techniques 520
      6.5.5.1 Weibull Analysis 525
      6.5.5.2 Regression Analysis 532
      6.5.5.3 Analysis of Variance 538
  6.6 RELIABILITY ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 542
    6.6.1 Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) 543
    6.6.2 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) 554
    6.6.3 Worst Case Analysis 567
    6.6.4 Sneak Analysis 573
      6.6.4.1 Sneak Circuit Analysis 577
      6.6.4.2 Software Sneak Analysis 579
    6.6.5 Durability Analysis 584
    6.6.6 Finite Element Analysis 588
    6.6.7 Safety Analysis
      6.6.7.1 Overview of Safety Analysis 590
      6.6.7.2 Software Safety Analysis 594
    6.6.8 Thermal Analysis 601
    6.6.9 Electromagnetic Analysis 605
    6.6.10 Human Factors Analysis 608
    6.6.11 Maintainability/Testability Analysis
      6.6.11.1 Maintainability Analysis 609
      6.6.11.2 Testability Analysis 610
      6.6.11.3 Maintainability/Testability Analysis Checklist 611
    6.6.12 Reliability-Centered Maintenance 612
Section 7.0 Testing 621
  7.1 SYSTEM TEST REQUIREMENTS 623
  7.2 RELIABILITY TESTING 627
    7.2.1 Reliability Test Strategies 628
    7.2.2 Software Reliability Test Strategies 632
  7.3 DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS (DOE) 636
  7.4 ACCELERATED AND HIGHLY ACCELERATED TESTING 646
    7.4.1 Acceleration Factors Used in Life Models 649
    7.4.2 Accelerated Life Testing 656
    7.4.3 Highly Accelerated Testing 665
      7.4.3.1 Step-Stress Testing 669
      7.4.3.2 Highly Accelerated Life Test (HALT) 671
  7.5 RELIABILITY GROWTH AND RELIABILITY DEMO/QUAL TESTING 673
    7.5.1 Reliability Growth Testing 675
      7.5.1.1 Software Reliability Growth Testing 680
    7.5.2 Reliability Demonstration/Qualification Testing 684
  7.6 RELIABILITY SCREENING 699
    7.6.1 Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) 704
  7.7 ELECTROMAGNETIC TESTING 708
  7.8 SOFTWARE RELIABILITY TESTING 710
    7.8.1 Software Test Coverage Metrics 713
    7.8.2 Software Statistical Usage Testing 717
    7.8.3 Operational Profile Testing 725
    7.8.4 Markov Testing 731
  7.9 HUMAN FACTORS TEST AND EVALUATION 736
    7.9.1 Human Engineering Test and Evaluation Activities 738
    7.9.2 Testing for Human Reliability 740
  7.10 MAINTAINABILITY/TESTABILITY TEST STRATEGIES 744
    7.10.1 Maintainability/Testability Demonstration Testing 752
  7.11 FAILURE REPORTING, ANALYSIS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION SYSTEM 756
    7.11.1 Root Cause Failure Analysis 766
Section 8.0 Production and Beyond 773
  8.1 STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL AND SIX-SIGMA 775
  8.2 CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT 788
  8.3 LIFETIME EXTENSION ASSESSMENT 797
APPENDIX A Example Hardware Reliability Design Guidelines 804
APPENDIX B R&M Standardization Documents 814
APPENDIX C Reliability and Maintainability Education Sources 830
APPENDIX D Acronyms 834