GREEN: The Impact of “Green” Technology on System Reliability

  • GREEN: The Impact of Green Technology on System Reliability

GREEN: The Impact of “Green” Technology on System Reliability

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The objective of the “Impact of ‘Green’ Technologies on System Reliability” Handbook is to identify the reliability considerations related to key green power generating technologies (solar, wind and geothermal), and to present methodologies and/or models useful in the identification and mitigation of reliability risks. Each topic is prefaced with a brief overview of the current technology and its intended applications, such that consequences of unreliable operation can be better appreciated. Where applicable, each topic includes a preview of key activities in the research and development of ‘next generation’ versions of the technology.

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SKU: PUB-GREEN Category:

Product Description

Concerns with the limited supply of non-renewable resources form the impetus for the intense private, national and international efforts currently being applied toward the development of so-called ‘green’ technologies. There is the expectation that these technologies will be utilized in a manner that is compatible with the environment. The term ‘green technology’ has been commonly applied to a wide array of technologies and is often associated with renewable and/or sustainable energy sources, higher efficiency products, and low-toxicity/high re-use materials, where ‘green’ is meant to signify an intended harmony with nature. In the strictest interpretation, the term ‘green technology’ should only be applied to those technologies which present no negative impact on the environment; however few technologies can meet this standard.

The objective of the “Impact of ‘Green’ Technologies on System Reliability” Handbook is to identify the reliability considerations related to key green power generating technologies (solar, wind and geothermal), and to present methodologies and/or models useful in the identification and mitigation of reliability risks. Each topic is prefaced with a brief overview of the current technology and its intended applications, such that consequences of unreliable operation can be better appreciated. Where applicable, each topic includes a preview of key activities in the research and development of ‘next generation’ versions of the technology.

Normally, the reliability risks associated with a technology are evaluated and mitigated during the design cycle. Yet, if the technology or application is relatively new, or if a product is rushed through development in an attempt to garner market share or to steer technology in a certain direction, or simply to meet legislated requirements, there is a possibility that the reliability aspects of the technology may not be fully assessed prior to commercialization.

This study is not intended to bias one toward or away from any technology. The selection of a technological solution has many facets other than reliability, including return-on-investment, maturity, geography, physical constraints, and the technology’s true environmental impact, among other considerations. It is hoped that this study will bring about sufficient awareness to persons involved in the selection, procurement, development, integration or servicing of green technologies as to the associated reliability risks, such that technical failures can be minimized, and effective preventive maintenance schemes can be deployed.

Additional information

ISBN:

978-1-93390442-9

Product Format:

Download, Hardcopy

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1
  1.1 Overview and Objective 1
  1.2 Background 1
2 Wind Power 3
  2.1 The Mechanics of Wind Power 3
  2.2 Wind Turbines 4
    2.2.1 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) 4
    2.2.2 Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) 6
    2.2.3 General Applications and Configurations 7
  2.3 Components of Utility-scale Wind Turbines 14
    2.3.1 Blades 15
    2.3.2 Gearbox 16
    2.3.3 Generator 17
    2.3.4 Tower and Foundation 19
    2.3.5 Supplementary Components 20
    2.3.6 Component Summary 24
  2.4 Economics of Wind Power 24
  2.5 Availability & Reliability of Wind Turbine Systems 26
    2.5.1 Availability of Source 27
    2.5.2 Availability of Equipment 33
    2.5.3 Wind Turbine Reliability 35
    2.5.4 Component-Level Reliability 37
  2.6 Wind Turbine Maintainability and Safety 65
    2.6.1 Maintainability 66
    2.6.2 Safety 67
  2.7 Summary 68
  2.8 References 69
  2.9 Existing Resources 72
    2.9.1 Standards 72
    2.9.2 Publications 73
3 Solar Power 99
  3.1 Overview 99
    3.1.1 The Mechanics of Solar Power 100
  3.2 Solar Technologies 100
    3.2.1 Configurations 100
    3.2.2 Photovoltaic (PV) 101
    3.2.3 Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) 106
    3.2.4 Solar Collectors 110
  3.3 Components of Solar Technology Systems 114
    3.3.1 PV System Elements 114
  3.4 Safety, Reliability & Maintainability Considerations 118
    3.4.1 Safety 118
    3.4.2 Availability 122
    3.4.3 PV Reliability 123
  3.5 Existing Resources 140
    3.5.1 Design Guide Resources 140
    3.5.2 Standards 146
    3.5.3 References 155
    3.5.4 Publications 156
4 Geothermal Energy 165
  4.1 Overview 165
  4.2 Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations 167
  4.3 Geothermal Power Plants – Electricity Production 170
    4.3.1 Technical Overview 170
    4.3.2 Major Components of Geothermal Power Plants 187
    4.3.3 Reliability and Maintainability Considerations 194
  4.4 Direct-Use Heating Systems 227
    4.4.1 Technical Overview 227
    4.4.2 Major Components of Geothermal Direct-Use Systems 230
    4.4.3 Reliability and Maintainability Considerations 230
  4.5 Geothermal Heat Pump Systems 253
    4.5.1 Technical Overview 253
    4.5.2 Reliability/Failure Modes of Major Components 261
    4.5.3 Geothermal Heat Pump System Reliability Models 263
  4.6 References 264
  4.7 Existing Resources: 266
    4.7.1 Standards 266
    4.7.2 Publications 268
5 Reliability Assessment and Analysis 273
  5.1 Field Data Reliability Assessment 273
    5.1.1 Reliability Assessment – Electronic Equipment 273
    5.1.2 Reliability Assessment – Mechanical Equipment 276
    5.1.3 Reliability Assessment References 286
  5.2 Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) 286
    5.2.1 Benefits of FMECA 286
    5.2.2 Limitations of FMECA 287
    5.2.3 FMEA and FMECA References 297
  5.3 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) 298
    5.3.1 Fault Tree Analysis and Software 308
    5.3.2 Fault Tree Analysis and the Human-Machine Interface 310
    5.3.3 Fault Tree References 311