GREEN: The Impact of “Green” Technology on System Reliability

  • GREEN: The Impact of Green Technology on System Reliability

GREEN: The Impact of “Green” Technology on System Reliability

Starting at: $75.00

The objective of the “Impact of 'Green' Technologies on System Reliability” Handbook is to identify the reliability considerations related to key green power generating technologies (solar, wind and geothermal), and to present methodologies and/or models useful in the identification and mitigation of reliability risks. Each topic is prefaced with a brief overview of the current technology and its intended applications, such that consequences of unreliable operation can be better appreciated. Where applicable, each topic includes a preview of key activities in the research and development of 'next generation' versions of the technology.

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Product Description

Concerns with the limited supply of non-renewable resources form the impetus for the intense private, national and international efforts currently being applied toward the development of so-called ‘green’ technologies. There is the expectation that these technologies will be utilized in a manner that is compatible with the environment. The term ‘green technology’ has been commonly applied to a wide array of technologies and is often associated with renewable and/or sustainable energy sources, higher efficiency products, and low-toxicity/high re-use materials, where ‘green’ is meant to signify an intended harmony with nature. In the strictest interpretation, the term ‘green technology’ should only be applied to those technologies which present no negative impact on the environment; however few technologies can meet this standard.

The objective of the “Impact of ‘Green’ Technologies on System Reliability” Handbook is to identify the reliability considerations related to key green power generating technologies (solar, wind and geothermal), and to present methodologies and/or models useful in the identification and mitigation of reliability risks. Each topic is prefaced with a brief overview of the current technology and its intended applications, such that consequences of unreliable operation can be better appreciated. Where applicable, each topic includes a preview of key activities in the research and development of ‘next generation’ versions of the technology.

Normally, the reliability risks associated with a technology are evaluated and mitigated during the design cycle. Yet, if the technology or application is relatively new, or if a product is rushed through development in an attempt to garner market share or to steer technology in a certain direction, or simply to meet legislated requirements, there is a possibility that the reliability aspects of the technology may not be fully assessed prior to commercialization.

This study is not intended to bias one toward or away from any technology. The selection of a technological solution has many facets other than reliability, including return-on-investment, maturity, geography, physical constraints, and the technology’s true environmental impact, among other considerations. It is hoped that this study will bring about sufficient awareness to persons involved in the selection, procurement, development, integration or servicing of green technologies as to the associated reliability risks, such that technical failures can be minimized, and effective preventive maintenance schemes can be deployed.

Additional information

ISBN:

978-1-93390442-9

Product Format:

Download, Hardcopy

Table of Contents

1 Introduction       1
  1.1 Overview and Objective     1
  1.2 Background     1
2 Wind Power       3
  2.1 The Mechanics of Wind Power     3
  2.2 Wind Turbines     4
    2.2.1 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT)   4
    2.2.2 Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT)   6
    2.2.3 General Applications and Configurations   7
  2.3 Components of Utility-scale Wind Turbines     14
    2.3.1 Blades   15
    2.3.2 Gearbox   16
    2.3.3 Generator   17
    2.3.4 Tower and Foundation   19
    2.3.5 Supplementary Components   20
    2.3.6 Component Summary   24
  2.4 Economics of Wind Power     24
  2.5 Availability & Reliability of Wind Turbine Systems     26
    2.5.1 Availability of Source   27
    2.5.2 Availability of Equipment   33
    2.5.3 Wind Turbine Reliability   35
    2.5.4 Component-Level Reliability   37
  2.6 Wind Turbine Maintainability and Safety     65
    2.6.1 Maintainability   66
    2.6.2 Safety   67
  2.7 Summary     68
  2.8 References     69
  2.9 Existing Resources     72
    2.9.1 Standards   72
    2.9.2 Publications   73
3 Solar Power       99
  3.1 Overview     99
    3.1.1 The Mechanics of Solar Power   100
  3.2 Solar Technologies     100
    3.2.1 Configurations   100
    3.2.2 Photovoltaic (PV)   101
    3.2.3 Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)   106
    3.2.4 Solar Collectors   110
  3.3 Components of Solar Technology Systems     114
    3.3.1 PV System Elements   114
  3.4 Safety, Reliability & Maintainability Considerations     118
    3.4.1 Safety   118
    3.4.2 Availability   122
    3.4.3 PV Reliability   123
  3.5 Existing Resources     140
    3.5.1 Design Guide Resources   140
    3.5.2 Standards   146
    3.5.3 References   155
    3.5.4 Publications   156
4 Geothermal Energy       165
  4.1 Overview     165
  4.2 Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations     167
  4.3 Geothermal Power Plants – Electricity Production     170
    4.3.1 Technical Overview   170
    4.3.2 Major Components of Geothermal Power Plants   187
    4.3.3 Reliability and Maintainability Considerations   194
  4.4 Direct-Use Heating Systems     227
    4.4.1 Technical Overview   227
    4.4.2 Major Components of Geothermal Direct-Use Systems   230
    4.4.3 Reliability and Maintainability Considerations   230
  4.5 Geothermal Heat Pump Systems     253
    4.5.1 Technical Overview   253
    4.5.2 Reliability/Failure Modes of Major Components   261
    4.5.3 Geothermal Heat Pump System Reliability Models   263
  4.6 References     264
  4.7 Existing Resources:     266
    4.7.1 Standards   266
    4.7.2 Publications   268
5 Reliability Assessment and Analysis       273
  5.1 Field Data Reliability Assessment     273
    5.1.1 Reliability Assessment – Electronic Equipment   273
    5.1.2 Reliability Assessment – Mechanical Equipment   276
    5.1.3 Reliability Assessment References   286
  5.2 Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)     286
    5.2.1 Benefits of FMECA   286
    5.2.2 Limitations of FMECA   287
    5.2.3 FMEA and FMECA References   297
  5.3 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)     298
    5.3.1 Fault Tree Analysis and Software   308
    5.3.2 Fault Tree Analysis and the Human-Machine Interface   310
    5.3.3 Fault Tree References   311