Techniques to Evaluate Long-Term Aging of Systems (LAST)

  • Techniques to Evaluate Long-Term Aging of Systems (LAST)

Techniques to Evaluate Long-Term Aging of Systems (LAST)

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The objective of this report is to highlight the impact of long-term aging effects on parts, assemblies and equipments by investigating characteristics of aging as they impact specific material classes.

The report is broken down into the following sections:

Section 2 addresses general environmental design considerations for aging during in-service conditions;

Section 3 discusses aging factors as they relate to ferrous and non-ferrous metals;

Section 4 provides an overview of aging as it applies to polymer materials;

Section 5 covers general reliability design considerations and appropriate tasks/techniques.

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Product Description

The Reliability Information Analysis Center mission has continued to evolve over the years, with the greater recognition that reliability, maintainability, and quality are critical military system and commercial product attributes. Coincident with this evolution has been the recognition that these attributes have much more encompassing impacts than their specific attained metrics. For example, where at one time the measure of reliability called mean-time-between-failure (MTBF) was of interest in itself, now management and system planners have expanded their interest because of how that MTBF impacts such issues as sustainability and total ownership costs. Part of the refocusing of reliability-related needs is the concern over long-term aging effects on systems in operation and in storage brought about by systems having to last longer. The objective of this report is to highlight the impact of long-term aging effects on parts, assemblies and equipments by investigating characteristics of aging as they impact specific material classes. The report is broken down into the following sections: Section 2 addresses general environmental design considerations for aging during in-service conditions; Section 3 discusses aging factors as they relate to ferrous and non-ferrous metals; Section 4 provides an overview of aging as it applies to polymer materials; and Section 5 covers general reliability design considerations and appropriate tasks/techniques.

Additional information

ISBN:

978-1-933904-34-4

Product Format:

Download, Hardcopy

Table of Contents

1. Introduction       1
2. General Design Considerations for In-Service Conditions       1
  2.1. Desert Environments     2
    2.1.1 Temperatures   2
    2.1.2 Solar Radiation (UV)   4
    2.1.3 Dust (Airborne and Ground)   5
    2.1.4 Thermal Temperature Cycling   6
    2.1.5 Humidity   6
    2.1.6 Chemical   7
    2.1.7 Compatibility   7
    2.1.8 Interactions   7
  2.2 Arctic Environments     7
    2.2.1 Temperature   7
    2.2.2 Solar Radiation (UV)   8
    2.2.3 Dust (Airborne and Ground)   9
    2.2.4 Thermal Cycling   9
    2.2.5 Humidity   9
    2.2.6 Chemical   11
    2.2.7 Compatibility   11
    2.2.8 Interactions   12
  2.3 Tropical Environments     12
    2.3.1 Temperature   12
    2.3.2 Solar Radiation (UV)   12
    2.3.3 Dust (Airborne and Ground)   13
    2.3.4 Thermal Cycling   13
    2.3.5 Humidity   14
    2.3.6 Chemical   14
    2.3.7 Compatibility   15
    2.3.8 Interactions   15
3. Aging Factors Related to Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Metals       15
  3.1 Properties of Metals     15
    3.1.2 Metal Basics   15
  3.2 Failure Modes and Mitigation Techniques     18
    3.2.1 Yielding   18
    3.2.2 Elastic Deformation   21
    3.2.3 Brinelling   21
    3.2.4 False Brinelling   22
    3.2.5 Brittle Fracture   23
    3.2.6 Ductile Fracture   24
    3.2.7 Buckling   25
    3.2.8 Creep   25
    3.2.9 Galling   26
    3.2.10 Spalling   27
    3.2.11 Wear   28
    3.2.12 Fatigue   29
    3.2.13 Corrosion   32
      3.2.13.1 Uniform Corrosion 33
      3.2.13.2 Galvanic Corrosion 36
      3.2.13.3 Crevice Corrosion 42
      3.2.13.4 Pitting Corrosion 44
      3.2.13.5 Stress Corrosion Cracking 47
      3.2.13.6 Corrosion Fatigue 55
      3.2.13.7 Intergranular Corrosion 57
      3.2.13.8 Selective leaching 59
      3.2.13.9 Erosion corrosion 60
      3.2.13.10 Exfoliation 61
      3.2.13.11 Microbiological Influenced Corrosion (MIC) 62
      3.2.13.12 Filiform Corrosion 64
      3.2.13.13 Hydrogen Damage 65
      3.2.13.14 Hot Corrosion 65
4. Polymers       69
  4.1 What is a Polymer     69
    4.1.1 Monomers and Macromolecules   70
    4.1.2 Thermoplastics, Thermosets and Elastomers   71
      4.1.2.1 Blends 72
      4.1.2.2 Crystalline or Amorphous 72
      4.1.2.3 Molecular Weight 73
      4.1.2.4 Formation Process 73
      4.1.2.5 Process Considerations for Curing Thermosets 74
      4.1.2.6 Glass Transition 74
      4.1.2.7 Stress-Strain 75
    4.1.3 Fluids   80
    4.1.4 Thermal Conductivity   81
    4.1.5 Aging   81
  4.2 Failure Modes and Special Environmental Considerations     82
    4.2.1 Specific Design Considerations for Polymers in Out-of-Service Conditions   82
    4.2.2 Specific Design Considerations for Polymers in In-Service Conditions   82
      4.2.2.1 High Temperature 82
      4.2.2.2 Low Temperature 83
      4.2.2.3 Solar Radiation (UV) 83
      4.2.2.4 Thermal Temperature Cycling 83
      4.2.2.5 Cyclic Mechanical Load Cycling 83
      4.2.2.6 Humidity 84
5. General Reliability Design and Analysis Considerations       97
  5.1 Understanding Life Cycle Cost Concepts     97
  5.2 The System Design Process     110
  5.3 Design for Reliability     114
  5.4 Materials and Parts Selection and Control Strategies     115
  5.5 Reliability Physics     122
  5.6 Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA)     125
  5.7 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)     135
  5.8 Life Modeling and Testing     141
    5.8.1 Acceleration Factors Used in Life Models   143
    5.8.2 Accelerated Life Testing   150
    5.8.3 Highly Accelerated Testing   159
      5.8.3.1 Step-Stress Testing 160
      5.8.3.2 Progressive Stress Testing 162
      5.8.3.3 Highly Accelerated Life Testing (HALT) 163
      5.8.3.4 Highly Accelerated Stress Test (HAST) 166
    5.8.4 Design of Experiments   167
  5.9 Reliability Testing     177
    5.9.1 Reliability Growth Testing and Reliability Demonstration Testing   182
  5.10 Data Collection and Analysis     200
    5.10.1 Types and Sources of Data   215
  5.11 Failure Analysis     217
    5.11.1 Root Failure Cause Analysis   224
APPENDIX A: References Reviewed       A-1