Applied Reliability Engineering Volume II, 5th Ed.

Applied Reliability Engineering Volume II, 5th Ed.

$40.00

Volume II of the book provides a “systems view” of reliability engineering covering in chapter six the standard techniques for system reliability analysis and simulation. Chapter seven addresses techniques used in designing for reliability and maintainability. Chapter eight introduces renewal theory, condition-based maintenance and other aspects of maintainability analysis. Chapter nine provides a thorough coverage of the various aspects of development and acceptance testing as well as accelerated testing. Chapter ten then describes the design and conduct of reliability management programs.

Copyright © January 2006 by The Center for Reliability Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA. 

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Product Description

Authors – Marvin Roush and Willie Webb

This book is organized to provide an introduction to reliability engineering, both for practicing engineers and for students. The emphasis throughout is on concepts and basic principles. It contains practical applications to guide the reader to appreciate the value of each topic presented. This book was not developed to be used as a handbook or reference book; such books commonly are made up of a number of self-contained modules that provide information about separate topics. Rather, this work is a carefully woven fabric of connected ideas that are progressively developed. Handbooks and other ‘how to’ books are meant to meet short term needs for carrying out a given process but do not lead to a full understanding of the subject as is the goal here. More advanced texts are cited for further reading on the mathematical and statistical aspect of reliability analysis and engineering.

The approach to engineering described here is one that has been evolving in many companies. They have moved away from an approach that only evaluated product designs through testing and data analysis to one that integrates all parts of the product design and development in a thoroughly integrated reliability program. The activities in such a program are not an end in themselves, but rather, are valuable when utilized to assist in making proper engineering and management decisions.

This book is used at the University of Maryland for a two-semester course for both upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students. By selecting the appropriate portions of the material, considerable flexibility is available for using this books as a reference for a one-semester course. The first part of the book focuses upon metrics of reliability and methods of achieving reliable components. The second half focuses upon system reliability, system analysis techniques and unique problems that arise from interactions between distinct parts of a system.

Table of Contents

6 System Modeling and Analysis        231
  6.1 Introduction      231
    6.1.1 Definition of Functional Elements    231
  6.2 Reliability of Simple Systems      232
  6.3 Reliability Block Diagram Method      232
    6.3.1 Series System Models    232
    6.3.2 High-Level Versus Low-Level Redundancy    237
    6.3.3 M-out-of-N Redundancy   237
    6.3.5 Dependent Failures    239
    6.3.6 Conditional Probability Approach   241
  6.4 Reliability Obtained Using a Signal Flow Graph      243
    6.4.1 A Few Elements of Set Theory   244
    6.4.2 Cut-Set Method for Determining System Unreliability   247
    6.4.3 Boolean Algebra    249
  6.5 System Failure Analysis      252
  6.6 Fault Tree Analysis     253
    6.6.1 Fault Tree Building Blocks   254
    6.6.2 Fault Tree Construction    258
    6.6.3 Fault Tree Evaluation    259
  6.7 Event Tree Construction      264
    6.7.1 Sample Event Tree for Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis    267
  6.8 Simulation Modeling for System Reliability Analysis      268
    6.8.1 Why Use Simulation?   268
    6.8.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Simulation   269
    6.8.3 Monte Carlo Simulation   270
Exercises       277
7 Designing for Reliability, Maintainability, and Safety        289
  7.1 Establishing and Allocating Reliability Requirements     289
    7.1.1 Simplest Possible Method of Allocation    289
    7.1.2 Apportionment Based Upon Complexity    290
    7.1.3 Reliability Improvement Allocation   291
    7.1.4 Optimization of Reliability Improvement Allocation   292
    7.1.5 Albert’s Method   293
  7.2 Legal Issues      295
    7.2.1 The Changing Landscape of Liability   297
    7.2.3 Examples of Design Defect Cases   299
    7.2.4 Manufacturing Defect Cases    304
    7.2.5 Strategies for Protection against Product Liability
Lawsuits  
306
    7.2.6 Inspection and Testing Procedures   307
  7.3 Failure Mode Analysis (FMA) and FMA Follow-Up      309
    7.3.1 What is an FMA?   309
    7.3.2 FMA Follow-Up    309
    7.3.3 Purpose of the FMA    309
    7.3.4 Use of an FMA Rather Than a Failure Mode and Effect
Analysis   
309
    7.3.5 Development of the FMA   310
    7.3.6 Steps in Developing the FMA   310
  7.5 Sneak Analysis      322
    7.5.1 Sneak Circuits and Their Analysis    323
    7.5.2 Mercury Redstone Incident    326
  7.6 Topological Techniques     328
    7.6.1 Single-Line (No-Node) Topograph    330
    7.6.2 Double-Ground Node Topograph   330
    7.6.3 Double-Power Node Topograph   331
    7.6.4 “H” Pattern Topograph   331
  7.7 Sneak Circuit Guidelines      331
  7.8 Vendors of Sneak Circuit Software      332
  7.9 Sneak Label Example      332
  7.10 Maintainability Considerations     333
    7.10.2 Maintainability and Reliability    334
    7.10.3 Maintainability as a Program Element   334
    7.10.4 Maintainability Terms and Definitions   334
    7.10.6 Maintenance-Time Definitions   336
    7.10.7 Maintenance-Time Composition    337
    7.10.8 Corrective-Maintenance-Time Composition    337
    7.10.9 Delay-Time Composition    338
    7.10.10 Modification Time Defined   338
    7.10.11 Maintainability Parameters   338
Exercises       373
8 Life Models for Repairable Items       379
  8.1 Introduction      379
  8.2 Maintenance and Replacement Schemes     379
    8.2.1 Organizational Maintenance   380
  8.2 2 Intermediate Maintenance      381
    8.2.3 Supplier/Manufacturer/Depot Maintenance   381
  8.3 Repair Policy      382
    8.3.1 Nonrepairable Item    382
    8.3.2 Partially Repairable System    382
    8.3.3 Fully Repairable System   383
  8.4 The Renewal Process     384
  8.5 Reliability Centered Maintenance      387
    8.5.1 Maintenance Strategies    388
    8.5.2 The “Bathtub Curve” Fallacy    389
    8.5.3 RCM Program Development   393
  8.6 Reliability of Dynamic Systems      393
  8.7 Introduction to Markov Modeling      394
    8.7.1 A Markov Model   396
    8.7.2 Discrete Markov Chains   398
    8.7.3 Continuous Markov Processes    401
  8.8 Transition Rate Concepts     402
    8.8.1 Binary Model for a Repairable Component    403
    8.8.2 Two Dissimilar Repairable Components   404
    8.8.3 Two Identical Repairable Components   406
    8.8.4 Cumulated States   406
Exercises       409
9 Reliability Testing        413
  9.1 Introduction      413
  9.2 Reliability Testing      413
    9.2.1 Early Product Development Testing    414
    9.2.2 Reliability Development/Growth Testing    415
    9.2.3 Reliability Qualification Testing    415
    9.2.4 Production Reliability Acceptance Testing   415
    9.2.5 Environmental Stress Screening    415
  9.3 Early Product Development Testing     416
    9.3.1 Traditional Temperature/Humidity Tests    416
    9.3.2 Pressurized Humidity Testing    417
    9.3.3 Development of HAST Systems   417
    9.3.4 Dual-Vessel HAST Systems    418
  9.4 Reliability Growth      418
    9.4.1 Objectives of Reliability Growth   418
    9.4.2 Requisites of Reliability Growth    419
    9.4.3 Avoid a Common Pitfall during Reliability Growth   419
    9.4.4 Benefits of Reliability Growth   419
    9.4.5 Process of Reliability Growth    419
  9.5 Reliability Growth Models      420
    9.5.1 Discrete Reliability Growth Models    420
    9.5.2 Continuous Reliability Growth Models   421
  9.6 Accelerated Testing      424
    9.6.1 Acceleration Methods    425
  9.7 Environmental Stress Screening (ESS)      426
    9.7.1 Environmental Stresses    427
    9.7.2 Stresses Applied to Product Under Test    430
  9.8 Demonstration Testing      433
  9.9 Probability Ratio Sequential Test (PRST)     445
Exercises       457
10 Reliability Management        461
  10.1 Corporate Policy for Reliability     461
  10.2 Integrated Reliability Programs     461
Appendices       495
A Notation        497
B Definitions        501
C Rules of Boolean Algebra        509
D Statistical Tables        513
  Table D-1 Standard Normal Cumulative Distribution Function      515
  Table D-2 Critical Values of Student’s t Distribution     519
  Table D-3 Critical Values of Chi- Square χ2 α Distribution Function     521
  Table D-4 Critical Values of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Statistic      523
  Table D-5 F-Cumulative Distribution Function, Upper 1 Percentage Points      524
  Table D-6 F-Cumulative Distribution Function, Upper 5 Percentage Points      526
  Table D-7 F-Cumulative Distribution Function, Upper 10 Percentage Points      528
E References        531
F Answers to Selected Exercises       539
Subject Index       543